Paper review DNA vaccines have advantages such as good manufacturing production, lack of anti-vector immunity, and capability to promote both cellular and humoral immune responses. This technique simply carries the genetic information of antibody in shape of pDNA directly into our nucleus. However, the delivery makes some problems here. Genes do not efficiently enter the cells. There are many methods to deliver them, such as injections, inhalation, viral vectors and others.
This journal introduces the method: microneedle-polymer file approach. They named this polymer multilayer tattooing. This polymer film tattooing approach may offer a route to efficacious DNA vaccines via a pain-free and self-administrable dry skin-patch platform.
Layer-by-layer system has been used to make the polymer film. PNMP, which is originally hydrophobic but changes its property into hydrophilic when exposed to UV, gets role of trigger to release pDNA. The negative charge of nucleic acid needs help of positively charged polymer, which PBAE takes parts in. For immunomodulation, poly(I:C) has also added.